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Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi)

 

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi (Kessler) description

Sources of data:

1. Lev Simonovich Berg, Freshwater Fishes of the USSR and the neighboring countries, the 4th Edition, Zoological Institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Publishing House of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow-Leningrad 1948 (pages 104-109).

2. Georgiy Vasil’evich Nikol’skiy, Particular Ichthyology, “Soviet Science” State Publishing House, Moscow 1950 (pages 91-92).

3. Data collected by Bernard R. Kuhajda (Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute, USA) during his work at the fish collections of Zoological Museums in Moscow, St. Petersburg and London. Bernard R. Kuhajda, Copyright 2019. All rights reserved.

***

Some specimens of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon has developed or well developed cord on the end of tail. Other specimens of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon has no tail cord at all.*

*The tail cord of Shovelnose Sturgeons (Pseudoscaphirhynchus) contains multiple receptors which probably serve to select optimal position in strong stream. Both forms of  Large Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni (Bogdanow) has well developed tail cord. Small Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanni (Kessler) has no tail cord at all.

The length of the body of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon:

specimens without tail cord is up to 27 cm;

specimens with the cord is up to 36 cm.

 

There are three forms of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon:

1. Typical form of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi (Kessler) with long snout without tail cord or with very short tail cord.

2. Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi morpha intermedia (Berg) with moderately elongated snout and moderately developed tail cord.

3. Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi morpha brevirostris (Berg) with short snout and long tail cord.

In former times local fishermen rather often caught all tree forms of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon together in one place.

 

Photo of the three forms of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (long, intermediate, and short snout forms) kindly provided for publication by Bernard R. Kuhajda, Copyright 2019. All rights reserved. The photo was taken by Bernard R. Kuhajda (Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute, USA) of preserved specimens during his work at the fish collections of Zoological Museums in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan) 

 

 

 

 

One of the specific features of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi) is the crease on the external edge of pectoral fin.*

*Small Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanni) has the  same crease. And both forms of  Large Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni) do not have it.

Picture of the left pectoral fin of Small Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanni) with the crease on the external edge (view from the back of the fish). L. S. Berg, Freshwater Fishes of the USSR and the neighboring countries, the 4th Edition, Zoological Institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Publishing House of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow-Leningrad 1948 (page 109).

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon does not have spines on its head as well as on its snout. And this is another distinction of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon from Large Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon and Small Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon.*

*Both forms of Large Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni) have well developed sharp spines on their heads and snouts. Small Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanni) has no spines on its head and usually does not have them on snout. But some specimens of Small Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon has poorly developed spines on snout.

 

Spawning

In former times Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon spawned in Syr Darya River near Chinaz (Uzbekistan) on April simultaneously with  Aral Sea Ship Sturgeon. One specimen of female Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon, 23 cm in length, that was examined by Russian researchers in former times, had 1500 eggs with diameter of 1,3-1,8 mm.

 

 

Distribution

In former times Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon inhabited Syr Darya River Drainage from Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan) down to the delta (Kazakhstan).

 

List of the specimens of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon that Bernard R. Kuhajda (Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute, USA) have examined in museums in Moscow, St. Petersburg and London.

The data is kindly provided for publication by Bernard R. Kuhajda, Copyright 2019. All rights reserved.

Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi

Syr Darya River Drainage:

 

Kazakhstan:

ZISP 11746 (1), Syr Darya River near mouth, 60 km downstream of Kazalinsk, 1899 See the location on Google Planet Earth;

ZISP 11943 (1), Syr Darya River near mouth, near Kazalinsk, 21 May 1900 See the location on Google Planet Earth;

ZISP 11944 (1), Syr Darya River near mouth, 60 km downstream of Kazalinsk, October 1900 See the location on Google Planet Earth;

ZISP 11745 (2), Syr Darya River, Karmakchi, 22 July 1899 See the location on Google Planet Earth;

ZMMU P1490 (1), ? Syr Darya delta, Yarachina, near Mordva, 17 April 1933;

ZMMU P3378 (1), Kara-Uzyak branch, middle reaches of the Syr Darya River, 30 km N of Dzhalagash, 17 September 1936 See the location on Google Planet Earth

 

Uzbekistan:

ZISP 4507 (1), Syr Darya River near Chinaz, 1878 See the location on Google Planet Earth;

ZISP 4528 (3), Syr Darya River near Chinaz, 1878 See the location on Google Planet Earth;

ZMMU P2611 (2), Syr Darya River near Chinaz, 13 April 1934 See the location on Google Planet Earth;

ZMMU P5260 (2), Chirchik River near confluence with Syr Darya River, 17 November 1940 See the location on Google Planet Earth;

BMNH 92.11.24:22 (1), Kara-Darya, 1892 See the location on Google Planet Earth,   See the location on Yandex Maps;

BMNH N9179 (2), Kara-Darya River near Balikchi near jct. Naryn River, 1881 See the location on Google Planet Earth,   See the location on Yandex Maps;

BMNH 79.11.14:65 (1), Tyr Darya River, 1879;

BMNH 79.11.14:66 (1), Tyr Darya River, 1879. 

 

Country unknown:

ZMMU P640 (2), Syr Darya River, 1871 [SYNTYPES P. fedtschenkoi];

ZMMU P8214 (1), Syr Darya River, Dairbaer, 1951;

ZMMU uncataloged (1), no data;

ZISP 4529 (3), Syr Darya River, 1878.

 

ZISP – Zoological Museum of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russia

ZMMU – Zoological Museum of Moscow University, Moscow, Russia

BMNH – British Museum of Natural History, London, The United Kingdom

 

 

Inquiries

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi) which is the closest relative of Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeons might still inhabit the muddy waters of Syr Darya River. Hydrological regime of the river was much affected in the course of construction of numerous dams which were undertaken during the Soviet time and caused water stream velocity and level regulations.  Hydrological regime corrections and loss of breeding sites caused practical extinction of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (this was confirmed by local fishermеn in the course of enquiry undertaken by Nikolai Muge, a member of the Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO) and his Kazakh colleagues). However in 2017 the author of the website was informed by a person who had been formerly engaged in fishery in Kazakhstan that local fishermen in Shardara Water Reservoir and Keles River area caught time to time strange fishes that could be Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeons according to their descriptions. He was also informed by another person who was born in Kazakhstan and lived there during the Soviet time that in 1980-s he caught  Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon in Syrdarya River not far from the town of Turkestan (the person identified the fish when the author of the website showed him a photo of Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (it looks similar to Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon).

In October 2017 the author of the website supported by "Golden Fish" Fish Farming Facility (located near Tashkent) made inquiries about Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon in the course of a short private expedition in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan in the area of Chinaz - Shardara Water Reservoir. Here is the report.

 

Uzbekistan

In Uzbekistan I visited a locally well-known Fish Market (Wholesale Fish Market) in Yangi Chinaz (See on Google Earth) and also a town district near the market where fishermen traditionally lived (See on Google Earth). The area is located on the right bank of Syr Darya River near confluence of Chirchik River with Syrdarya River.

I came to the market at night – the time when fishermen bring fish to sell it to traders.  I showed a photo of Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon to fishermen and fish traders. Nobody had ever seen the fish except one person who told me that they (he and his fishermen team) caught two fishes similar to one on the photo in spring 2017 in Syr Darya River not far from Yangi Chinaz. The two fishes where different: one of them was 1,5 kg with white coloration, the other one was 2,5 kg with grey coloration. The both fishes had spines and didn’t have cord in the end of tail. He also told me that local fishermen catch such fishes time to time usually in spring during fish breeding period and they let them go back to the river because they realize that the fish is rare. They call the fish with the Russian word “osyotr” (sturgeon) (not “bekre” as in Kazakhstan). He also said that there had been a 90-year old fisherman (now deceased) among his neighbors who had told him that in 1970-s there were a plenty of sturgeons  in Syr Darya River and that he once caught a sturgeon of 35 kg and he could fill a pail with caviar from the fish.

Watch the video of the inquiry

 

Photos of Fish Market (Wholesale Fish Market) in Yangi Chinaz

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)

 

 

 

 

 

 

I suspect that local fishermen catch sturgeons that occasionally get out from private fish farms and go to Syr Darya River through irrigation channels. In recent years a lot of juvenile sturgeons have been imported to this part of Uzbekistan from Russian fish farming facilities for growing. There is an Uzbek fish farming facility near Tashkent (Golden Fish) that have recently started a full circle breeding of  sturgeons in pools with flowing water. They may also sell the juvenile sturgeons to other fish farms (a report about "Golden Fish" Fish Farming Facility (in Russian language) with photos and a video).

1,5 – 2,5 kg is too heavy for Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon.

As far as 35 kg sturgeon caught in 1970-s is concerned it could be only Aral Sea Ship Sturgeon (Acipenser nudiventris) which came upstream to Chinaz for breeding. Now Aral Sea Ship Sturgeon is probably extinct in Syr Darya and Amu Darya Rivers. But the issue needs a special inquiry because in course of our Life-on-earth.ru Project - WWF Russia - Khorezm Mamun Academy expedition to the Lower Amu Darya in June-July 2017 a fisherman from the town of Kipchak (Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan) whose name is Nuraddyn Aka  told me that in 2016 a 10 kg sturgeon had been caught in Amu Darya River in Karatau Mountains area. I suppose that the sturgeon could probably be Aral Sea Ship Sturgeon because at least by 2016 there had been no fisheries with any sturgeons in that part of Uzbekistan yet; and 10 kg is too heavy even for big form of Large Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon. (a report about Life-on-earth.ru Project - WWF Russia - Khorezm Mamun Academy expedition (Karatau Mountains area section of Amu Darya River) to the Lower Amu Darya in June-July 2017 (in Russian language) with photos and a video).

 

My inquiries in a district of Yangi Chinaz where fishermen traditionally live gave no results. Nobody could identify the sturgeon on the photo.

 

 

Kazakhstan

After that I went to Kazakhstan and made the inquiries in the area of Shardara Water Reservoir visiting the following places:

1. Akdzhar, near a section of Keles River which confluences with Syr Darya River (See on Google Earth).

I had no enough time to search for fishermen in this very place so I could get no information about Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon, but I found a shallow area with gravel (See on Google Earth) - probable breeding area for  Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon. The place is not far from confluence with Syr Darya River. The area of confluence and the neighboring section of Syr Darya River are not fished freely because the place of confluence is inside the closed border area (Kazakhstan-Uzbekistan border). The place is not too far from Shardara Water Reservoir where a Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon was caught in winter 2016 according to my further inquiries (a report from a local fisherman in Sultan Bazar (Kyzylasker-Karatyube Dzhuma Bazar) Market  in Kyzylasker just near Akdzhar).

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)

 

 

 

 

2. Shardara Water Reservoir near Shardara town (right bank of Shardara Reservoir regarding the flow of Syr Darya River). The place from which some fishermen crews start for fishing (See on Google Earth).

I talked with one fishermen crew. I showed them the photo of Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon. Nobody had ever seen the fish.

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Kyzylasker Sultan Bazar (Kyzylasker-Karatyube Dzhuma Bazar) Market (See on Google Earth).

The market gathers on Friday a lot of people from Kyzylasker, Karatyube, Akdzhar  and many other local villages. I came to the fish section and showed the photo of Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon to fishermen and fish traders. Nobody had ever seen the fish except one local fisherman (his  name is Berikkhan) who told me that he caught one Shovelnose Sturgeon in winter 2016. The sturgeon was about 30 cm long, it had a cord in the end of tail, it was of white-yellowish coloration. Berikkhan told me that he used three walls-3 meters high-bottom fixed net with 2-3 cm cells; the depth was 3 meters respectively. Initially, when I interviewed Berikkhan using videocamera he told me that he participated in fishing Sichel (Pelecus cultratus) with the net in Shardara Water Reservoir and caught the Shovelnose Sturgeon there. But later during confidential talk Berikkhan pointed the real location of catching Shovelnose Sturgeon - the section of Syr Darya River upstream Shardara Water Reservoir between Kyzylasker-Jetysay Road Bridge across Syr Darya River and the area where Syr Darya River inflows into Shardara Water Reservoir (closer to the bridge See location on Google Earth). The area is a wide valley of Syr Darya River. The Shovelnose Sturgeon was occasionally caught with the net fixed to the bottom to catch Sichel (Pelecus cultratus) and was released almost immediately. It was caught in winter during the period of high water level (the water level is regulated by a dam located far upstream on the territory of Uzbekistan) when the whole valley was covered by water. The net was fixed aside the main stream of Syr Darya River.

 

 

Watch the video of the inquiry

 

Photos of Sultan Bazar (Kyzylasker-Karatyube Dzhuma Bazar) Market (fish section) in Kyzylasker

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)

 

 

 

 

4. An area around a section of Syr Darya River on the way from Kyzylasker to Jetysay upstream Shardara Water Reservoir (See the area on Google Earth).

I talked with the owner of a fish café who deals with fishermen in the area. I showed him the photo of Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon. He had never seen the fish (See the fish café on Google Earth).

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon Inquiries (Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preliminary conclusions

There could be a small local population of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon in the inquired area. The population could presumably breed not far from Shardara Water Reservoir upstream in Syr Darya River (if there are any bottom areas with stable gravel cover somewhere) or in Keles River (see the foregoing report). The Shovelnose Sturgeons could come downstream to Shardara Water Reservoir  to feed. The version should be checked in the course of further inquiries and researches.

The fish is almost not known to local fishermen due to rareness and probably inappropriate way of fishing for Shovelnose Sturgeons (the fishermen who caught Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeons in the Lower Amu Darya for me insisted on using 3 walls net with rather small size of cells to improve the  chances of catching Shovelnose Sturgeons especially small form of Large Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni) and Small Amu Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanni).

The further inquiries could be made upstream and downstream  Shardara Water Reservoir. The idea is that Syr Darya is divided on sections by dams and in some sections of Syr Darya River or inflowing rivers (like Chirchik River, Keles River, Arys' River etc.) could be bottom areas with stable gravel cover which could presumably serve as breeding areas for very small isolated populations of Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon. That's why it is reasonable to make inquiries on an extent of almost the whole river to be sure of existence or extinction of  Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon.

 

 

Additional Data

Syr Darya Shovelnose Sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi) in The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. See the webpage of the IUCN

 

 

 

 

 

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